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Geographical
Range Map:

PHYLOGENETIC ORGANIZATION

Sophophora subgenus

  • obscura group

  • willistoni group
    • willistoni subgroup (neb(insul(trop(willis(equin(pavlos-paulist)))))): Ayala et al. 1974; Robe et al. 2010
      • paulistorum complex (centr-trans).(inter(amaz(andebraz-orin))): Robe et al. 2010
        or… (((centr-trans)andebraz)amaz).(inter-orin)): Ayala et al. 1974
    • bocainensis subgroup (bocainoid(bocainen-paraboca)): Carson 1954

  • saltans group ((austro-lusalt)(salt-prosalt)nigros, pseudos, septen)).(subs-paras).(sturte-mill-magal): Yassin 2009

  • melanogaster group
    • melanogaster subgroup ((ere-ore)((tei(yak-sant))((melZimb-melWC-melCosmo)(sim(sec-mau)))): Lachaise et al. 1988
    • ananassae subgroup
      • bipectinata complex (pseu(maler((bipecBIP(bipSZE-bipPAC))-parabip))):Matsuda et al. 2005; Kopp and Barmina 2005
      • ananassae complex (papue-like-papue).(para(anana, pallidWau(pallid-pallid-like))): Matsuda et al. 2009
      • ercepeae complex (vall(erc-mer)): Lemeunier et al. 1997; Matsuda et al. 2009
    • takahashii subgroup (nepal((paral-prosti)(trilut(lutes-takah-pseudo)) : Parkash et al. 1994; Schawaroch 2002
      or… (nepal(pseudo((prosti-paral)(takah(trilut-lutes))))): Kopp and True 2002
    • elegans subgroup (elegBr-elegBl): Hiri and Kimura 1997
    • montium subgroup
      • auraria complex (yuw-rufa).(subaur(biaur(aura(triaur-quadra)))))): Ohnishi et al. 1983; Schawaroch 2002; Miyake and Watade 2007
      • kikkawai complex (penn((lini-lini-like)(kikk(leont-bocki)))): Ohnishi et al. 1983; Schawaroch 2002; Der Line and Houle 2008
      • jambulina complex (barb(jumb(punjab-punjab-like))): Ohnishi et al. 1983; Schawaroch 2002; Der Line and Houle 2008
      • serrata complex (birchii PNG -birchii NB)birchiiAust). (birchii - dominicana - serrata): UNRESOLVED, birchii is based solely on Geographical proximity

Drosophila subgenus

  • virilis group
    • virilis phylad (viril(lumm(nova(amer-tex)))) virilis is only reported from wild localities after Throckmorton 1982; Spicer 1992; Wang et al. 2006
    • montana phylad ((litor-ezoa).(flav(lacic(borea-mont)))): Throckmorton 1982; Spicer 1992; Wang et al. 2006
    • kanekoi outgroup (kanek(virilis + montana phylads)

  • repleta group
    • mulleri subgroup
      • mulleri and mojavensis clusters N.America S.America
        (mayag(strau-paris)).(((aldr-wheel)(mull-nigro))((ariz-moj)huay)navoj))): Durando et al. 2000
      • longicornis cluster (hex-spenc)(ritae(main(pach(long-propa)))): Durando et al. 2000
      • buzzati complex (ham….((stalk-richa).((unis(mart(starm-venez)).(serid(borb-seriem)(buzz-koepf))): Durando et al. 2000

  • immigrans group
    • nasuta subgroup (kohk((kepul(nasut-albom)).((s.albost-s.sulfur-s.neon-s.bilim)pulau));Ramesh and Rajasekarasetty 1980, Nagaraja et al. 2004; Batchtrog 2006
    • hypocausta subgroup (neohyp(siam-hypoc))

  • quinaria group (((((rec-subquin).(occid-suboccid))transv).(mund-quin)).(palus-subpalus))..inubila)..tenebr)

  • pallidipennis group

  • mesophragmatica group (virac..((guac-pava).((meso-ork-altipl)(gach-brnc)))

  • hawaiian picture wing clade
    • planitibia subgroup (diff-plan)(hetero-silves)
    • grimshawi group

  • funebris group

  • testacea group

  • melanica group Asia US (melanura-euro).(param-melanica)

  • cardini group (((araw-dunni)(bellad-acut))(cardino-procardi)parthen)neocard))((neom-polym))cardini)

  • nannoptera group ((pach - acanth- nanno)wasser)

  • robusta group

  • tripunctata group



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